C o m m o n      E L E M E N T A R Y      P A R T I C L E S 
Wave-Particle Properties / Uncertainty Principle / Conservation Laws
Tom  Whitney    256-6234     E-Mail
FERMION
Constitute Matter / Exclusion Principle  /  Spin Integral of 1/2
Anti-Particles: Opposite Charge, Same Spin, Annihilate Particles
BOSON
Produce 4 Forces  /  Spin Integral of 0 or 1
LEPTON
Fundamental Particle
Forms Matter
Exist in Pairs
3 Families
QUARK
Fundamental Particle
Forms Matter In
Baryons & Mesons
Not Free in Nature
3 Families  3 Colors -
Red, Blue, Green
Anti-Quarks:
Cyan, Yellow, Magenta
BARYON
Composite
Particle
Forms Matter
3 Quarks -
Color Neutral
MESON
Composite Particle
Quark & Anti-Quark
Charge  0, +, -
Unstable -
Annihilation
VECTOR BOSON
Fundamental Particle-Wave
SOME CONSERVATION LAWS
Mass-Energy E-S-W
Linear Momentum E-S-W
Angular Momentum E-S-W
Electric Charge E-S-W
Baryon # E-S-W
Lepton # E-W
Charge Conjugation E-S
Time Reversal E-S-W?
TCP: E-S-W?
ELECTRON
Stable
1st Generation w/
Neutrino, Up,
& Down Quark
Charge -1,  Mass .511
In Atom Shell Rules
Chemical Reactions
POSITRON
Anti-Electron, Stable
UP
Stable
Charge + 2/3
Mass 330

DOWN
Stable
Charge -1/3
Mass 333

NUCLEONS
3 Quarks U & D
In Atom Nucleus
PROTON
Stable,  Quarks UUD
Charge +1  Mass 938.3
NEUTRON
Stable in Nucleus,
Unstable outside
Quarks: DDU  Charge 0
Mass:  939.6
Decays into Electron,
Proton, & Neutrino
PIONS
Hold Nucleus
Together
Produce Strong
Force via Gluon
Exchange w/
Proton & Neutron can
change one to other
ELECTROMAGNETIC
PHOTON
Stable,  Mass 0,  Spin 1
Strength .01,  Range Infinite
Decreases w/ Distance,
Causes Unlike Attraction &
Like Repulsion, Can change
Electron to Positron or
reverse, Symmetry  w/ Weak
& Strong at High Energy
Energetic Photon from
Electron-Positron
Annihilation
Other More
Massive Leptons
Unstable
4 Other More
Massive Quarks
Unstable
CHARM, STRANGE
TOP,  BOTTOM
Many Other
Baryons
Unstable
Many Other
Baryons
Unstable,  Heavier
than Pions  Made
of Massive Quarks
STRONG - GLOUN
Stable  8 Particles
6-Color, 2-White
Charge 0  Strength 1
Range 10 ( to -13 cm)
Exchange between Quarks
changes Quark Color
NEUTRINOS
Form Pair w/Lepton
Little Interaction
w/ anything
Electron Neutrino
Stable, Charge 0, Mass ?
      GRAVITY - GRAVITON
Stable  Charge 1
Mass: 81  Spin 0
Strength 10 (to -38)
Range Long
Other Neutrinos
Unstable
      WEAK
W (-)
Unstable  Mass 81  Charge 1
Strength 10 (to -13)
Range 10 (to -1)
W (+)
Unstable  Mass 81  Charge -1
Strength 10 (to -13)
Range Short,  Decays into
Electron & Anti-Neutrino
Z
Unstable  Mass 93  Charge 0
Strength 10 (to -13)
Range Short
HIGGS
Unstable  Mass ?  Charge 0
Strength: ?  Range Short
Breaks Electro-Weak
Symmetry at  Low Energy